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同位语从句与定语从句的辨析

作者:黄岳辉 | 来源:中学生读书网 | 阅读:176 | 时间:2016/06/09

  ■七宝中学英语教师 黄岳辉

        定语从句和同位语从句通常具有类似的引导词,在使用中经常容易混淆,我们可以从以下几个方面进行区分:

     1.从先行词的词性来看,同位语从句的先行词大多为抽象名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词,也可以是代词。例如:

    (1)Anyone who breaks the traffic rules deserves to be pun-ished accordingly.(定语从句)

     (2)This is the school where my father once studied when he was young.(定语从句)

     (3)We have proof that the man committed crime.(同位语从句)

     (4)I had the impression that she chose her words with care speech.(同位语从句)

     2.从意义的角度来看,同位语从句与先行词之间存在的是同位或等同的关系,说明先行词的具体内容。定语从句与先行词之间存在的是所属关系,表示“……的”,起修饰限定作用。例如:

     (1)The news that five people were kiled in the ac-cident was shocking.(同位语从句)

     (2)The news that he told us yesterday was shocking.(定语从句)

     从例(1)中我们可以知道news 的具体内容是“five people were kiled in the ac-cident”。而从例(2)中,我们无法知道news 的具体内容,“he told us yesterday”只对“news”进行修饰和限定,说明了消息的来源。

     3.从语法角度来看,引导同位语从句的that是连词,只起语法作用,用来连接同位语从句,在从句中不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句的that(有时可用which)是关系代词,它除了起引导从句的语法作用之外,还要在从句中充当句子成分,主要是作主语或宾语。例如:

     (1)The fact that it was rainging cats and dogs pre-vented him attending the meeting on time.(同位语从句)

     (2) The fact that /which we discovered from the documents wil benefit our research work.(定语从句)

     (3)The fact that/which has recently been revealed to us is a great surprise.(定语从句)

     例(1)中的that 在从句中不充当任何成分,that 在例(2)、例(3)中分别作宾语和主语。

     4.从引导词来看,同位语从句主要由that引导,有时也可 以 用 where,who,why,whether等引导,但是定语从句一般不用whether引导。例如:

     (1)The problem whether they can finish the project as scheduled matters much.(同位语从句)

     不过,who,which,what,when,why,how,where等词引导同位语从句时,它们的用法和用作关系代词或关系副词时引导定语从句的用法不同:引导同位语从句的关联词是对先行词的具体内容进行进一步的解释说明,与先行词不存在指代关系;而引导定语从句的关系代词或关系副词不但在从句中充当成分,而且与其修饰的先行词指代的是同一个人或者事物。例如:

     (2)The reason why he was absent from the meeting is hard to accept.(定语从句)

     (3)He has solved the problem why the radio was out of order.(同位语从句)

     5.从可否省略来看,同位语从句的that一般不可以省略;但是定语从句中的关系代词如果在从句中充当宾语,在非正式用语中常常可以将关系代词that省略。例如:

     (1)The news (that)we read from the newspaper is inspiring.(定语从句)

     (2)The news that he passed the driving test is be-yond our imagination.(同位语从句)

     6.同位语从句与先行词一般可以发展成为一个完整的句子,谓语动词用tobe,而定语从句则不能。例如:

     (1)There was no doubt that he was an exceptional scholar.(同位语从句)

     此句可以发展成为一个表语从句:The doubt was that he was  an exceptional scholar.

    ◎Exercise:

     1. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this com-ing Christmas.    A. which    B. that    C. what D. whether    2. Luckily,we'd brought a road map without ____ we would have lost our way.    A. it    B. that    C. this    D. which    3. Word came from the press confer-ence yesterday _______ our team had won.    A. when    B. where    C. which D. that    4. The news got about _______ he had won a car in the lottery.    A. that    B. which    C. when D. what    5. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates wil be admitted into universities.    A. while    B. that    C. when D. which    6. It is said that more middle school graduates wil be adnitted into universities and  this  is  the  lastest  information _______has been put forward.    A. while    B. when    C. that D. which    ◎Key:BBD ABC

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